Flat roofs They are widely installed and mainly consist of flexible thin film membranes.
Pitched roofs Modules function as roof tiles or roofs consisting of solar shingles (incorporating flexible thin film membranes) which may replace batten and seam metal roofing as well as 3-tab asphalt shingles. Roof lifespan is extended due to better protection of insulation from ultraviolet radiation and water degradation.
Façades BIPVs can replace conventional materials or be installed as a second layer reinforcing the building shell. They are applicable in public buildings i.e. office complexes, production buildings, shopping centres, schools as well as private i.e. terraced houses.
Double façades The external PV layer also operates as a solar heat sink re-emitting heat internally and sheltering at the same time the internal layer from increasing heat loss due to cold winds. On the other hand in summer the internal construction layers are protected from direct solar gains and excess heat can be dissipated through natural or mechanical ventilation from the air gap to the environment.
Glazing components Semi-transparent or transparent modules may replace conventional glazings and expensive - sensitive reflective membranes in windows and skylights. Such systems with variable transparency levels may be applied in entrance halls, courtyards, parking plots and combine sun protection with financial gains.
Shading devices Αpart from protecting the building constructions from excess insolation (double façades) BIPVs may be utilized as shading devices. These systems are now known as “Shadow voltaic systems”. They can be stationary or mobile louvers programmed to track direct solar radiation for optimum energy yields or maintain comfort illumination levels in the building’s interior (adequate daily insolation levels considering glare issues).